Also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes (DNID) or “fatty diabetes,” this disease mainly affects people over 40 years of age.
Diabetes is a disease characterized by an increase in the level of sugar in the blood. Usually, this blood sugar is regulated by a hormone secreted by the body called insulin, which brings the sugar into cells for use or into the liver for storage.
In people affected by type 2 diabetes, there is insulin resistance, that is to say, reduced effectiveness of this hormone in regulating the level of circulating sugar. Therefore, blood sugar levels remain high, which causes damage in the medium and long term, especially in the blood vessels.
Unlike type 1 diabetes, which appears preferentially in children, type 2 generally occurs in adults. It is also the majority form of diabetes: more than 90% of people with diabetes in France have type 2. Type 2 diabetes is more common in people over 45, pronounced overweight, sedentary, and have a family history of diabetes.
Likewise, women who have had gestational diabetes (during pregnancy) or who have had a baby weighing more than 4.5 kg are at greater risk of developing it.
Among the causes incriminated in the onset of type 2 diabetes, family predispositions are not negligible. It is also established that African, Latin American, or Asian descent are more at risk.
However, social and environmental factors also weigh heavily in the balance: lack of physical activity, overweight, and obesity are the main risk factors for this pathology.
Repeated and prolonged hyperglycaemia has negative consequences for the body. Both small and large blood vessels (arteries) can be affected. Diabetes is a cardiovascular risk factor: it increases the likelihood of myocardial infarction or stroke, in particular. The online pharmacy website XLPharmacy states that “the retina and lens can also be damaged, as can the kidneys”. Nerves can also be damaged, causing neuropathy that disrupts pain sensitivity. Patients can then become unresponsive to this essential nerve signal, leading to potentially dramatic situations because their wounds evolve without realizing it. Conversely, the slightest brushing of the skin may cause significant pain.
It is a blood measurement that will make it possible to detect diabetes, whether it is type 1 or 2. Two successive measurements of fasting blood sugar will be taken. If they are both greater than 1.26g/lb., the diagnosis of diabetes is made.
Type 2 diabetes can quickly go unnoticed for several years. However, sure signs can put the flea in the ear, such as repeated infections, frequent urge to urinate, especially at night, brutal thirst to calm, blurred vision, excessive drowsiness, especially after meals.
The management of type 2 diabetes has two components. The first is “lifestyle optimization.” This is to fight against risk factors to improve sensitivity to the action of insulin. For this, patients are advised to lose weight, have regular physical activity, and balance their diet as much as possible by increasing the proportion of plants to the detriment of products rich in fat and sugar. These lifestyle changes may be enough to control blood sugar better initially.
If necessary, in addition to this optimization approach, drugs can be prescribed by a diabetologist or a general practitioner. Among them, we find several therapeutic classes: biguanides (such as metformin), sulphonylureas and glinides, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, incretins, glozing’s, or SGLT2 inhibitors. These are then oral and injectable antidiabetics. When insulin secretion is no longer sufficient, patients with type 2 diabetes may also need to inject it, as may type 1 diabetes.